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Genetic damage in mobile phone users: some preliminary findings
Gursatej Gandhi, Anita
May-August 2005, 11(2):99-104
BACKGROUND: The impact of microwave (MW)/radio frequency radiation (RFR) on important biological parameters is probably more than a simply thermal one. Exposure to radio frequency (RF) signals generated by the use of cellular telephones have increased dramatically and reported to affect physiological, neurological, cognitive and behavioural changes and to induce, initiate and promote carcinogenesis. Genotoxicity of RFR has also been reported in various test systems after in vitro and/or in vivo exposure but none in mobile phone users. AIMS: In the present study, DNA and chromosomal damage investigations were carried out on the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals using mobile phones, being exposed to MW frequency ranging from 800 to 2000 MHz. METHODS: DNA damage was assessed using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay and aneugenic and clastogenic damage by the in vivo capillary blood micronucleus test (MNT) in a total of 24 mobile phone users. RESULTS: Mean comet tail length (26.76 0.054 mm; 39.75% of cells damaged) in mobile phone users was highly significant from that in the control group. The in vivo capillary blood MNT also revealed highly significant (0.25) frequency of micronucleated (MNd) cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight a correlation between mobile phone use (exposure to RFR) and genetic damage and require interim public health actions in the wake of widespread use of mobile telephony.
  39 70,864 732
Frequency of β-thalassemia trait and other hemoglobinopathies in northern and western India
Nishi Madan, Satendra Sharma, SK Sood, Roshan Colah, HM Bhatia
January-April 2010, 16(1):16-25
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.64941  PMID:20838487
Introduction : India is an ethnically diverse country with an approximate population of 1.2 billion. The frequency of beta-thalassemia trait (βTT) has variously been reported from <1% to 17% and an average of 3.3%. Most of these studies have been carried out on small population groups and some have been based on hospital-based patients. There is also a variation in the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in different regions and population groups in the country. A high frequency of Hb D has been reported from the North in the Punjabi population, Hb E in the eastern region of India and Hb S is mainly reported from populations of tribal origin from different parts of the country. Objectives: To study the gene frequency of βTT and other hemoglobinopathies in three regions East (Kolkata), West (Mumbai) and North (Delhi) in larghe population group (schoolchildren) for a more accurate assessment of gene frequency for planning of control programmes for haemoglobinopathies. Materials and Methods: This study included 5408 children from 11 schools in Delhi, 5682 from 75 schools in Mumbai and 957 schoolchildren from Kolkata who were screened for βTT and haemoglobinopathies. These included 5684 children from 75 schools in Mumbai and 5408 children from 11 schools in Delhi. Children were 11-18 years of age of both sexes. The final report is, however, only on 11090 schoolchildren from Mumbai and Delhi as data from Kolkata was restricted both in numbers and objectives and could not be included for comparison. Results: The overall gene frequency of βTT in Mumbai and Delhi was 4.05% being 2.68% and 5.47% in children of the two cities respectively. In Mumbai, the gene frequency was evenly distributed. Majority of the children with βTT from Mumbai were from Marathi (38.9%) and Gujarati (25%) speaking groups. Gene frequency was >5% in Bhatias, Khatris, Lohanas and Schedule Castes. In Delhi, a higher incidence was observed in schoolchildren of North and West Delhi (5.8-9.2%). The schoolchildren of North and West Delhi comprised predominantly of Punjabi origin compared to children in the South of the city (2.2%, 2.3%). When analyzed state-wise, the highest incidence was observed in children of Punjabi origin (7.6%) and was >4% from several other states. Majority of the traits from Mumbai were anemic (95.1% male and 85.6% in female). The prevalence of anemia was lower (62.7% male and 58.4% female) children with βTT from Delhi. This was a reflection of the higher prevalence of anemia in children without hemoglobinopathy in Mumbai than in Delhi. Nutritional deficiency was probably more severe and rampant in children Mumbai. Gene frequency of Hb D was greater in schoolchildren from Delhi (1.1%) than in Mumbai (0.7%). Hb S trait (0.2%) was observed exclusively in children from Mumbai. A low incidence of Hb E trait (0.04%) was seen in children in Mumbai. A higher incidence is reported from the East. The number of cases studied from the eastern region was small as the data from the East (Kolkata) could not be included in the analysis. Conclusion: This study comprises a larger number of children studied for the gene frequency of βTT and other hemoglobinopathies from India. Population groups with higher gene frequencies require screening programmes and facilities for antenatal diagnosis as well as increased awareness and educational programmes to control the birth of thalassemic homozygotes. The overall carrier frequency of βTT was 4.05% and reinforces the differential frequency of β-thalassemia trait in schoolchildren from Delhi and Mumbai and the higher incidence of hemoglobin D in Punjabis as reported previously. The birth incidence calculated thereof for homozygous thalassemics would be 11,316 per year which are added each year to the existing load of homozygous thalassemics. This is much higher than the previously reported number of births annually. Hence suitable control measures need to be undertaken urgently in India.
  29 7,333 484
Prevalence of congenital heart diseases in Mysore
R Smitha, SC Karat, D Narayanappa, B Krishnamurthy, SN Prasanth, NB Ramachandra
January-April 2006, 12(1):11-16
Background: Prevalence studies on Congenital heart Diseases (CHDs) have been done several times world wide and such studies are very limited in Indian populations. A few earlier studies in India have reported an increased prevalence of CHDs ranging from 2.25 to 50.89 per 1000 live births. Aims and Objective: To study the prevalence of congenital heart diseases in Indian population. Materials and Methods: Data on the prevalence of CHDs were collected and analyzed from the three major hospitals of Mysore, Cheluvamba Hospital, CSI Holdsworth Memorial Hospital and J.S.S Hospital from the year 2000 to 2004. Results: The prevalence of CHDs for five years in Mysore hospitals ranges from 6.6 to 13.06 per 1000 live births. The most frequent type of CHD was found to be VSD (40.47%) followed by ASD (19.06%), TOF (13.38%) and PDA (9.53%). It is clear that the maximum CHDs were detected in the first year of life when compared to the later years of life. The prevalence of CHDs in Mysore is increasing from 2000 to 2004 which might be due to the improvement of diagnosis, attention or awareness among the medical authorities on the disease. Conclusion: The prevalence of CHDs in Mysore is not very high as reported in other parts of the country, however; it is an important disease which needs an immediate medical attention.
  17 10,342 434
Frequency of fokI and taqI polymorphism of vitamin D receptor gene in Indian population and its association with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels
Aparna A Bhanushali, Namrata Lajpal, Smita S Kulkarni, Sandeep S Chavan, Sarita S Bagadi, Bibhu R Das
September-December 2009, 15(3):108-113
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.60186  PMID:21088715
Background: The VDR protein is at the centre of the vitamin D endocrine system, a complex physiological system with substantial feedback regulatory mechanisms involved in maintaining serum calcium and 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3. Variations in VDR gene are shown to have implications in several diseases and have also been implicated as an important genetic factor affecting bone mass. Aim: To determine the frequency of Fok I and Taq I variants in healthy Indian individuals and its association with 25-OH-Vitamin D levels. Settings and Design: Blood samples were collected from 143 unrelated normal individuals (Male-84 and Female-59) and their genotypes determined. Materials and Methods: After amplification by polymerase chain reaction, each polymorphism was genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism. For 100 normal healthy individuals 25-hydroxyvitamin D estimation was done using DiaSorin kit method. Statistical Analysis: Graph pad software was used to calculate the P values from the Chi-square. Results: Out of 143 samples analyzed for FokI and TaqI polymorphisms the following genotypic frequency was obtained FF 59%, Ff 36%, ff 5% and TT 49%, Tt 43%, tt 8% respectively. Conclusions : Results indicate that the distribution of the polymorphic loci Fok I and Taq I vary considerably not only in different populations, but also within India. Furthermore, when the genotypes were analyzed with respect to 25-OH-Vitamin D levels, a significant association was seen for the Taq 1 SNP but not with the Fok I.
  16 3,798 131
Cytogenetic causes for recurrent spontaneous abortions - An experience of 742 couples (1484 cases)
S Dubey, MR Chowdhury, B Prahlad, V Kumar, R Mathur, S Hamilton, M Kabra, P SN Menon, IC Verma
May-August 2005, 11(2):94-98
BACKGROUND: First trimester pregnancy loss is a very common complication and a matter of concern for couples planning pregnancy. Balanced chromosomal rearrangements in either parent is an important cause of recurrent pregnancy loss particularly in the first trimester. AIMS: In this study an evaluation of the contribution of chromosomal anomalies in causing repeated spontaneous abortions was made. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A review of the cytogenetic data in 742 couples (1484 individuals) with recurrent spontaneous abortions who were examined for chromosomal aberrations in the period 1990-2003 is presented. Women who had at least two abortions, or spontaneous abortions preceded or followed by fetal deaths or birth of a malformed child, and patients who had recurrent spontaneous abortions (> 3) with normal live issue/s were studied. RESULTS: Chromosomal rearrangements were found in 31 individuals (2%). These abnormalities included 22 (2.9%) structural aberrations, 9 (1.2%) numerical anomalies. In addition to these abnormalities, 21 (3.2%) chromosomal variants were also found. CONCLUSION: Chromosomal analysis is an important etiological investigation in couples with repeated spontaneous abortions as it helps in genetic counseling and deciding about further reproductive options.
  15 7,219 372
Congenital malformations at birth in Central India: A rural medical college hospital based data
Amar Taksande, Krishna Vilhekar, Pushpa Chaturvedi, Manish Jain
September-December 2010, 16(3):159-163
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.73412  PMID:21206705
Objective: To study the incidence of congenital anomalies and the associated risk factors in Department of Pediatrics at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, a rural medical college hospital in central Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: All the intramural deliveries between 1 January 2005 and 31 July 2007 comprised 9386 births and their 9324 mothers (62 mothers gave birth to twin babies). The newborns were examined and assessed systematically for the presence of congenital anomalies, system wise distribution of anomalies and risk factors attributable. Results: Out of the total 9386 deliveries, 9194 were live births and 192 were stillbirths. The total number of babies with congenital malformations was 179 (1.91%). Out of the 9262 singleton births, 177 (1.05%) were malformed, whereas 2 of the 62 pairs of twins had birth defects. Nine of the 179 malformed babies (5.02%) were still born. Prematurity, increased maternal age, increasing birth order and low birth weight were found to have a higher risk of congenital anomalies. Cardiovascular malformations were most common in live births, followed by musculoskeletal and genitourinary anomalies. Conclusion: Congenital anomalies are a major cause of stillbirths and infant mortality. Evaluation of cardiovascular system to rule out congenital heart disease in high-risk mothers' babies is the important factor to be considered.
  13 5,020 160
Genetic variation in nucleotide excision repair pathway genes influence prostate and bladder cancer susceptibility in North Indian population
Rama D Mittal, Raju K Mandal
January-April 2012, 18(1):47-55
Background : Inherited polymorphisms of XPD and XPC genes may contribute to subtle variations in NER DNA repair capacity and genetic susceptibility to development of urological cancer such as prostate and bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: We genotyped four Single Nucleotide Polymorphs (SNPs) of the DNA repair gene XPD and XPC in 195 prostate cancer (PCa) and 212 bladder cancer (BC) patients and 250 healthy controls from the same area. XPD Exon 10 (G>A) by amplification refractory mutation system and Exon 23 (A>C), XPC Intron 9 (Ins/Del) and Exon 15 (A>C) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Results : Variant genotype of XPC demonstrated association with PCa as well as in BC (P, 0.013; P, 0.003). Combined genotype (GA+AA) revealed association with PCa and in BC (P, 0.012, P, 0.002). Variant allele also demonstrated risk in both the cancer. Diplotype of XPD and XPC was associated with a significant increase in PCa and BC risk. Variant (+/+) genotype of XPC intron 9 shown increased risk with PCa and in BC (P, 0.012; P, 0.032). CC genotype of XPC exon 15 revealed increase risk (P, 0.047) with PCa not in BC. In clinopathological grade variant allele of XPC intron 9 and 15 demonstrated risk with high grade of tumor and bone metastasis of PCa. In BC variant allele of XPD exon 10 and 15 also shown association with tumor grade. XPC intron 9 influences the risk of BC in former tobacco users in BC. Conclusions: Our result support that SNPs in XPD and XPC gene may reduce NER repair capacity and play a major role for PCa and BC in North India.
  13 2,303 64
Y chromosome microdeletions in Turkish infertile men
Ayse Gul Zamani, Ruhusen Kutlu, H Gul Durakbasi-Dursun, Huseyin Gorkemli, Aynur Acar
May-August 2006, 12(2):66-71
AIMS: To detect the frequency and types of both chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in infertile men attending to our university intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI/IVF centre and fertile control subjects in our patient population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A total of 50 infertile men who were referred to IVF center of Meram medical faculty were selected for the molecular azospermia factor (AZF) screening program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Karyotype analysis and polymerase chain reaction amplification using 15 Y-specific sequence-tagged sites of AZF region were done. RESULTS: The total prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was found to be 10% (5/50), including 4 patients with numerical and 1 patient with structural abnormalities. Overall, 4 of the 50 patients tested (8%) exhibited deletions of the Y chromosome, 3 of them being azospermic and 1 of them oligospermic men. The frequency of the microdeletions in subgroups with azospermia and oligozoospermia was found to be 10.7% (3/29) and 4.7% (1/21) respectively. Microdeletions of AZFb and AZFc regions were detected in all of the 4 patients. Neither AZFa nor AZFd microdeletions were indicated. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that one must know whether there is a genetic cause for male infertility before patients can be subjected to ISCI or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/ISCI treatment.
  13 5,749 271
Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9[inv(9)(p12q13)]: Its association with genetic diseases
Babu V Rao, Lily Kerketta, Seema Korgaonkar, Kanjaksha Ghosh
September-December 2006, 12(3):129-132
Background: The chromosomal polymorphism of short arms of acrocentric chromosomes and heterochromatin variation of Chromosomes 1, 9, 16 and Y have been reported in humans. The pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9 is commonly seen in normal humans and the frequency estimated to be 1 to 3% in general population and inherited in mendalian fashion or might occur spontaneously without any clinical significance. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the frequency of inv(9) and its clinical correlation with human genetic diseases. Materials and Methods:0 The chromosomal analysis using GTG-banding was carried out in 3,392 cases suspected with genetic diseases. Results: The pericentric inversion frequency of different chromosomes in our study was 1.24% and frequency of inv(9)(p12q13) was high (64.29%) compared to other pericentric inversions in our study. A high frequency (9.33%) of inv(9)(p12q13) was detected in children with dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies. Conclusion: As a high frequency of inv(9)(p12q13) detected in children with dysmorphic features, the inv(9) definitely have a role in the abnormal phenotype development. During inversion event there might be loss or suppression of euchromatin chromosome region and hence detailed chromosomal break point study is important to understand the clinical significance of the pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9.
  13 23,559 714
MTHFR Gene variants C677T, A1298C and association with Down syndrome: A case-control study from South India
Cyrus Cyril, Padmalatha Rai, N Chandra, PM Gopinath, K Satyamoorthy
May-August 2009, 15(2):60-64
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.55217  PMID:20680153
Background: The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) polymorphisms and low folate levels are associated with inhibition of DNA methyltransferase and consequently DNA hypomethylation. The expanding spectrum of common conditions linked with MTHFR polymorphisms includes certain adverse birth outcome, pregnancy complications, cancers, adult cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric disorders, with several of these associations remaining still controversial. Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. It stems predominantly from the failure of chromosome 21 to segregate normally during meiosis. Despite substantial research, the molecular mechanisms underlying non-disjunction leading to trisomy 21 are poorly understood. Materials and Methods: Two common variants C677T and A1298C of the MTHFR gene were screened in 36 parents with DS children and 60 healthy couples from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The MTHFR genotypes were studied by RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified products and confirmed by sequencing. Results: The CT genotype was seen in three each (8.3%) of case mothers and fathers. One case father showed TT genotype. All the control individuals exhibited the wild type CC genotype. A similar frequency for the uncommon allele C of the second polymorphism was recorded in case mothers (0.35) and fathers (0.37) in comparison with the control mothers (0.39) and fathers (0.37). Conclusion: This first report on MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in trisomy 21 parents from south Indian population revealed that MTHFR 677CT polymorphism was associated with a risk for Down syndrome.
  12 4,405 363
Risk conferred by FokI polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene for essential hypertension
N Swapna, U Mohana Vamsi, G Usha, T Padma
September-December 2011, 17(3):201-206
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.92104  PMID:22345993
Background : The vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene serves as a good candidate gene for susceptibility to several diseases. The gene has a critical role in regulating the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) influencing the regulation of blood pressure. Hence determining the association of VDR polymorphisms with essential hypertension is expected to help in the evaluation of risk for the condition. Aim : The aim of this study was to evaluate association between VDR Fok I polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to essential hypertension. Materials and Methods : Two hundred and eighty clinically diagnosed hypertensive patients and 200 normotensive healthy controls were analyzed for Fok I (T/C) [rs2228570] polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Genotype distribution and allele frequencies in patients and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to predict the risk for developing hypertension by the individuals of different genotypes. Results : The genotype distribution and allele frequencies of Fok I (T/C) [rs2228570] VDR polymorphism differed significantly between patients and controls (χ2 of 18.0; 2 degrees of freedom; P = 0.000). FF genotype and allele F were at significantly greater risk for developing hypertension and the risk was elevated for both the sexes, cases with positive family history and habit of smoking. Conclusions : Our data suggest that VDR gene Fok I polymorphism is associated with the risk of developing essential hypertension
  12 3,583 56
The impact of consanguinity on the Indian population
AH Bittles
July-December 2002, 8(2):45-51
Numerous studies have been conducted by Indian anthropologists into the prevalence of both consanguineous and affinal marriage.1-3 and the topic of consanguinity continues to attract great attention among geneticists and social scientists. The strengthening of family relationships is of primary importance in the preference for close kin unions, with economic benefits an additional consideration. Consanguinity does not appear to adversely affect human fertility. However, both postnatal morbidity and mortality are increased, with greatest effect so far observed in the early years of life. With declining mortality and morbidity due to infectious disease, recessive genetic disorders will progressively gain greater prominence in the overall spectrum of ill-health. This change will be especially obvious in communities which practise consanguineous marriage, and in small highly endogamous communities where random drift occurs.
  12 8,479 464
The CTLA4 -819 C/T and +49 A/G dimorphisms are associated with Type 1 diabetes in Egyptian children
Hatem Mohamed Saleh, Nestor Rohowsky, Michael Leski
September-December 2008, 14(3):92-98
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.45001  PMID:20300303
Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic islets. T cell proliferation is negatively regulated by cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4). CTLA-4 polymorphisms are associated with T1D in some but not all populations. Aims: The study was conducted to investigate the association of the C-819T and A+49G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of CTLA-4 gene in T1D patients in the Egyptian population. Methods: The association of the C-819T SNP in intron 1 and A+49G SNP in exon 1 of the CTLA-4 gene with T1D were investigated in 396 Egyptian patients ≤14 years old and 396 control subjects >24 years old, with the same ratio of males to females in both groups. The diagnosis of T1D was made on the basis of ketoacidosis or ketosis with severe symptoms of acute onset at presentation and continuous dependence on insulin. Controls were negative for anti-GAD antibodies and were greater than 24 years of age. Genotyping was performed using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: The results demonstrated an association of the C-819T and A+49G SNPs in the CTLA-4 gene with T1D patients (P=0.0047) and (P=0.000575), respectively. Moreover, this association was stratified by gender and age to female patients with age at onset 0-5 years old (P=0.0186) and (P=0.00115) more than male patient with the age at onset 0-5 years old (P= 0.3120) and (P=0.345161), respectively. Conclusion: The results support an association of the C-819T and A+49G SNPs in the CTLA-4 gene with Egyptian children, specifically, females of onset age 0-5 years old.
  11 3,122 130
Methionine synthase polymorphisms (MTR 2756 A>G and MTR 2758 C>G) frequencies and distribution in the Jordanian population and their correlation with neural tube defects in the population of the northern part of Jordan
Helmi Yousif Al Farra
September-December 2010, 16(3):138-143
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.73405  PMID:21206701
Background: The human methionine synthase gene (MTR) is located on chromosome 1q43; it is of 105.24 kb and is made up of 33 exons. Methionine synthase is a cytoplasmic enzyme that requires methylcobalamin for activity and catalyzes the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. In this reaction, the methyl group of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is transferred to the enzyme bond cob(I) alamin to generate methylcobalamin, followed by the transfer of the methyl group to homocysteine to reform methionine. Materials and Methods: The frequencies of the polymorphisms of MTR 2756A>G and MTR 2758C>G have been determined in this study in a sample of 491 individuals collected from all regions of Jordan and representing the Jordanian population. The different alleles and genotypes at the two polymorphic sites were identified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results: Showed that the percentages of the polymorphic alleles at the MTR 2756 position in the north, middle and south regions were 90.38, 92.65 and 83.69%, respectively, for the MTR 2756A allele, and were 9.61, 7.34 and 16.30%, respectively, for the MTR 2756G allele, with overall percentages in the whole Jordanian population of 90.73 and 9.27% for the MTR 2756A and MTR 2756G alleles, respectively. The percentages of the genotype MTR 2756AA were 82.90% in the northern region, 86.72% in the middle region and 71.73% in the southern region, and an overall percentage of MTR 2756AA in the whole Jordanian population was 83.50%. The frequencies of MTR 2756AG genotype in the northern, middle and southern regions were 14.95, 11.84 and 23.91%, respectively, with an overall percentage of 14.46% in the whole Jordanian population. The percentages of the genotype MTR 2756GG in the northern, middle and southern regions were 2.13, 1.42 and 4.34%, respectively, with an overall percentage of 2.04% in the whole Jordanian population. Only the wild type allele (C) of the MTR 2758C>G polymorphism was detected in this study. In addition, the association of MTR 2756A>G and MTR 2758C>G polymorphisms with the development of neural tube defects (NTDs) was examined using 17 cases of mothers from the northern part of Jordan, who gave birth to NTD affected children during the period of this study. Results showed no association between these two examined polymorphisms and the increase in maternal risk for giving birth to NTD children. Conclusion: results of this study recommend that examination should be done on larger populations to arrive at better conclusions. Also, more studies on gene-gene interaction should be done to examine the associations with NTDs.
  11 2,679 69
Application of diagnostic methods and molecular diagnosis of hemoglobin disorders in Khuzestan province of Iran
Rahim Fakher, Kaeikhaei Bijan, Akbari Mohammad Taghi
January-April 2007, 13(1):5-15
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.32028  PMID:21957335
Background : The hemoglobinopathies refer to a diverse group of inherited disorders characterized by a reduced synthesis of one or more globin chains (thalassemias) or the synthesis of structurally abnormal hemoglobin (Hb). The thalassemias often coexist with a variety of structural Hb variants giving rise to complex genotypes and an extremely wide spectrum of clinical and hematological phenotypes. Hematological and biochemical investigations and family studies provide essential clues to the different interactions and are fundamental to DNA diagnostics of the Hb disorders. Although DNA diagnostics have made a major impact on our understanding and detection of the hemoglobinopathies, DNA mutation testing should never be considered a shortcut or the test of first choice in the workup of a hemoglobinopathy. Materials and Methods: A careful three-tier approach involving: (1) Full blood count (2) Special hematological tests, followed by (3) DNA mutation analysis, provides the most effective way in which to detect primary gene mutations as well as gene-gene interactions that can influence the overall phenotype. With the exception of a few rare deletions and rearrangements, the molecular lesions causing hemoglobinopathies are all identifiable by PCR-based techniques. Furthermore, each at-risk ethnic group has its own combination of common Hb variants and thalassemia mutations. In Iran, there are many different forms of a and β thalassemia. Increasingly, different Hb variants are being detected and their effects per se or in combination with the thalassemias, provide additional diagnostic challenges. Results:We did step-by-step diagnosis workup in 800 patients with hemoglobinopathies who referred to Research center of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathies in Shafa Hospital of Ahwaz Joundishapour University of medical sciences, respectively. We detected 173 patients as iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 627 individuals as thalassemic patients by use of different indices. We have successfully detected 75% (472/627) of the β -thalassemia mutations by using amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) technique and 19% (130/627) of the β -thalassemia mutations by using Gap-PCR technique and 6% (25/627) as Hb variants by Hb electrophoresis technique. We did prenatal diagnosis (PND) for 176 couples which had background of thalassemia in first pregnancy. Result of PND diagnosis in the first trimester was 35% (62/176) affected fetus with β -thalassemia major and sickle cell disease that led to termination of the pregnancy. Conclusion:Almost all hemoglobinopathies can be detected with the current PCR-based assays with the exception of a few rare deletions. However, the molecular diagnostic service is still under development to try and meet the demands of the population it serves. In the short term, the current generation of instruments such as the capillary electrophoresis systems, has greatly simplified DNA sequence analysis.
  11 8,957 761
Challenges and recommendations for conducting epidemiological studies in the field of epilepsy pharmacogenetics
Sandeep Grover, Meenal Gupta, Ritushree Kukreti
May 2011, 17(4):4-11
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.80351  PMID:21747586
Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders, afflicting approximately 50 million Indians. Owing to affordability and easy availability, use of first-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is heavily encouraged for the treatment of epilepsy in resource-limited countries such as India. Although first-generation AEDs are at par with second-generation AEDs in terms of efficacy, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are quite common with them. This could be attributed to the inferior pharmacokinetic parameters such as nonlinear metabolism, narrow therapeutic index and formation of toxic intermediates. In addition, epilepsy patients may differ in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, with about 1/3 rd of the population failing to respond to treatment. A proportion of this interindividual variability in response may be explained by genetic heterogeneity in the activity and expression of the network of proteins such as metabolizing enzymes, transporters and targets of AEDs. Over the last two decades, a considerable effort has been made by the scientific community for unraveling this genetic basis of variable response to AEDs. However, there have been inconsistencies in such genetic association studies conducted across different territories of the world. There could be several reasons underlying the poor replicability of these studies, mainly nonuniform phenotypic definitions, poor sample size and interethnic variability. In the present review article, we provide an overview of heterogeneity in study designs for conducting pharmacogenetic studies. In addition, critical recommendations required for overcoming such challenges imposed by pharmacogenetic epidemiological studies have been briefly discussed.
  11 2,316 95
The case for dedicated sickle cell centres
Graham R Serjeant
September-December 2006, 12(3):148-151
  10 5,682 190
Impact of pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9 [inv (9) (p11q12)] on infertility
Hossein Mozdarani, Anahita Mohseni Meybodi, Hamideh Karimi
January-April 2007, 13(1):26-29
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.32031  PMID:21957338
Background : One of the frequent occurrences in chromosome rearrangements is pericentric inversion of the Chromosome 9; inv (9) (p11q12), which is consider to be the variant of normal karyotype. Although it seems not to correlate with abnormal phenotypes, there have been many controversial reports indicating that it may lead to abnormal clinical conditions such as infertility. The incidence is found to be about 1.98% in the general population. Materials and Methods : We investigated the karyotypes of 300 infertile couples (600 individuals) being referred to our infertility clinic using standard GTG banding for karyotype preparation. Results : The chromosomal analysis revealed a total of 15 (2.5%) inversions, among these, 14 male patients were inversion 9 carriers (4.69%) while one female patient was affected (0.33%). The incidence of inversion 9 in male patients is significantly higher than that of normal population and even than that of female patients (P<0.05). Conclusions : This result suggests that inversion 9 may often cause infertility in men due to spermatogenic disturbances, which are arisen by the loops or acentric fragments formed in meiosis.
  10 17,749 564
Frequency of twinning in southwest Nigeria
A Akinboro, MA Azeez, AA Bakare
May-August 2008, 14(2):41-47
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.44104  PMID:20300293
Background: In the human species, twin is a type of multiple birth in which the mother gives birth to two offspring from the same pregnancy. The occurrence and frequency of twinning, however, varies across human populations. The maternal age, socio-environmental factors, increase in the use of contraceptives, the race of human population, increase in the spontaneous abortion rate, and seasonal variations are among the factors that could influence twinning rate. Information on twinning rates in southwest Nigeria is limited. Aims : This study presents information on the frequency of twinning, as well as its analysis by maternal age, in four urban settings in southwest Nigeria. This is with the aim of extending current knowledge on the frequency of twinning in southwest Nigeria and contributing to the demographic studies in the country. Materials and Methods: Data on single births and twin births from January 1995 to December 2004 were collected from the Oyo State General Hospital (OSGH), Wesley Guild Hospital (WGH), Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital (OAUTH), and Ekiti State Specialist Hospital (ESSH) in Ogbomoso, Ilesa, Ile-Ife, and Ado-Ekiti respectively. These were analyzed by year and maternal age groups of 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, and 45-49 years according to the standard method. Results: A frequency of twin births of 46.5 per 1000 deliveries and 46.2 per 1000 deliveries was recorded for Ilesa and Ile-Ife respectively. The frequency recorded for Ogbomoso and Ado-Ekiti was 38.5 and 22.1 per 1000 deliveries respectively. The overall average frequency of 40.2 per 1000 deliveries for the four hospitals ranks among the highest recorded rates of twin births in the world. The maternal age group of 25-29 years had the highest occurrence of twin births, while the lowest was recorded in the 45-49 years age group. Conclusion: This analysis reveals high incidence of twinning in the studied areas and supports previous assertion that the southwestern part of Nigeria has the highest twinning rate in the country and in the whole world. It is our opinion that diet, maternal history of twinning, and some socio-environmental factors may have influenced the results.
  10 3,657 146
Allelic variants of DYX1C1 are not associated with dyslexia in India
Pushpa Saviour, Satish Kumar, U Kiran, Rajasekhara Reddy Ravuri, VR Rao, Nallur Basappa Ramachandra
September-December 2008, 14(3):99-102
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.45002  PMID:20300304
Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disorder that manifests as an unexpected difficulty in learning to read despite adequate intelligence, education, and normal senses. The prevalence of dyslexia ranges from 3 to 15% of the school aged children. Many genetic studies indicated that loci on 6p21.3, 15q15-21, and 18p11.2 have been identified as promising candidate gene regions for dyslexia. Recently, it has been suggested that allelic variants of gene, DYX1C1 influence dyslexia. In the present study, exon 2 and 10 of DYX1C1 has been analyzed to verify whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence dyslexia, in our population. Our study identified 4 SNPs however, none of these SNPS were found to be significantly associated with dyslexia suggesting DYX1C1 allelic variants are not associated with dyslexia.
  10 2,611 156
Large-scale meta-analysis of genetic studies in ischemic stroke: Five genes involving 152,797 individuals
Khalil Hamzi, Amal Tazzite, Sellama Nadifi
September-December 2011, 17(3):212-217
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.92105  PMID:22345995
Background: Ischemic stroke descent has a genetic basis. Stroke represents a complex trait, which is assumed to be polygenic. On this topic, the role of a wide number of candidate genes has been investigated in stroke through association studies. Materials and Methods: We performed a literature-based systematic review of genetic association studies in stroke abound several populations. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined for each gene-disease association. Following a review of 300 manuscripts, five candidate gene variants were analyzed among 152,797 individuals (45,433 cases and 107,364 controls). Results: For these five candidate genes studied, the prothrombin OR is 1,57 (1,23-2,89), the factor V Leiden OR is 1,43 (0,67-6,24), the mean OR of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism is 1,11 (1,02-1,25), the summary OR for the C677T variant of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is 1,23 (0,61-1,47) and the pooled OR for the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is 0,95 (0,77-1,14) . Conclusion: These data suggest the genetic associations of some genes with ischemic stroke and it is necessary to compete with other genes. Our findings could represent an epidemiological base and a useful tool to address further molecular investigations and to realize more detailed meta-analyses.
  10 2,525 79
Physical growth of children with sickle cell disease
Malay B Mukherjee, RR Gangakhedkar
July-December 2004, 10(2):70-72
Anthropometric measurements were used to study the physical growth of 58 sickle cell disease(SS) children with severe clinical manifestations and compared with 86 normal(AA) children from Nagpur district of Maharashtra. Both sickle cell disease male and female children were shown to have statistically significant lower weights, heights, sitting heights, mid arm circumferences, skin fold thickness and body mass indexes but not upper/ lower segment ratio as compared to normal children with comparable sex and ages. No significant differences were observed between the male and female children with sickle cell disease or normal for any of the anthropometric measurements. A significant lower values of all the measurements except U/L ratio was observed in the age group of 11-14 years than the earlier age among the sickle cell disease children as compared to the normal children of the same age and sex groups. Thus, these results indicate that as a group, children with sickle cell disease weigh less, are shorter and undernourished as compared to normal children.
  10 6,638 214
Can novel Apo A-I polymorphisms be responsible for low HDL in South Asian immigrants?
Sunita Dodani, Yanbin Dong, Haidong Zhu, Varghese George
January-April 2008, 14(1):9-15
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.42321  PMID:20300285
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in the world. Even though its rates have decreased worldwide over the past 30 years, event rates are still high in South Asians. South Asians are known to have low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. The objective of this study was to identify Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) polymorphisms, the main protein component of HDL and explore its association with low HDL levels in South Asians. A pilot study on 30 South Asians was conducted and 12-h fasting samples for C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, Lipoprotein (a), Insulin, glucose levels, DNA extraction, and sequencing of Apo A-I gene were done. DNA sequencing revealed six novel Apo A-I single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in South Asians, one of which (rs 35293760, C938T) was significantly associated with low (<40 mg/dl) HDL levels (P = 0.004). The association was also seen with total cholesterol (P = 0.026) and LDL levels (P = 0.032). This pilot work has highlighted some of the gene-environment associations that could be responsible for low HDL and may be excess CAD in South Asians. Further larger studies are required to explore and uncover these associations that could be responsible for excess CAD risk in South Asians.
  9 5,807 215
Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and dyslipidaemia in adult Asian Indians: A population based study from calcutta, India
Mithun Das, Susil Pal, Arnab Ghosh
September-December 2008, 14(3):87-91
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.45000  PMID:20300302
Aim : The study was aimed to determine the association of Apolipoprotein E (apo E) gene polymorphisms on lipid levels in Asian Indian population. Methods : A total of 350 (184 males and 166 females) adult (30 years and above) Asian Indians of Calcutta and suburb participated in the study. Anthropometric measures, lipids profiles, and blood glucose measures were collected. Out of 350 subjects, a sample of 70 individuals was selected randomly for genotyping after adjusting for age and sex. The apo E gene polymorphisms were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results : The apo E polymorphism showed significant association with dyslipidaemia (P=0.0135) with e3/4 combination has had the highest occurrence of dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome (MS) followed by ε4/4 <ε3/3 <ε2/4 <ε2/3 in decreasing order. Conclusions : The ε4 allele of apo E gene independent of other risk factors is associated with dyslipidaemia in particular with low HDLc and high TC: HDLc ratio.
  9 3,215 218
Association of polymorphisms in leptin receptor gene with obesity and type 2 diabetes in the local population of Coimbatore
Devi Murugesan, Thirunavukkarasu Arunachalam, Viraragavan Ramamurthy, Selvi Subramanian
May-August 2010, 16(2):72-77
DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.69350  PMID:21031055
Background: Candidate gene association studies are very relevant to the area of clinical pharmacology. As information on candidate genes and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms increases, a number of such candidates can be studied in a population to explore their association with their susceptible disease. One such attractive and popular Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) candidate for obesity is the gene coding for leptin receptor. The leptin receptor gene (LEPR) polymorphism plays an important role in obesity and type 2 diabetes. But the role of this polymorphism is not yet studied in Indian population. Hence, the study focused to explore the association of leptin receptor polymorphisms (K109R, Q223R and K656N) with obesity and type 2 diabetes in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects recruited from the local population of Coimbatore. Materials and Methods: Genotypic analysis for the three polymorphisms has been made for 300 subjects (150 diabetic and 150 non-diabetic) with the age range of 40-60 years using conventional Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques in a case-control fashion. Allele frequencies were estimated based on the gene count method. Correlation was made with phenotypic variables including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), insulin and leptin levels for those polymorphisms. Results and Conclusion: Among the polymorphisms tested in this study, significant association with BMI (P < 0.05), WHR (P < 0.05) leptin (P < 0.001) and insulin (P < 0.0001) was observed for the SNP Q223R, whereas in the case of the other two polymorphisms the association was not statistically significant. The significance value was calculated based on the c2 test. The controls are also found to have a higher frequency of homozygous mutants for Q223R and are significantly associated with obesity. These findings support the hypothesis that Q223R polymorphism is associated with obesity. It can be speculated that the controls showing the same allele may develop Type 2 diabetes at a later stage and Q223R can act as a strong marker.
  8 4,058 213
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